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Bursts of Auroral Kilometric Radiation individually selected from Wind/WAVES data (2000-2004)

Tuesday 23 May 2023, by Baptiste Cecconi

This event list contains start and end times for automatically detected bursts of Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR), extracted from Wind/WAVES data. Also provided are the upper and lower frequency limits as a function of time within the burst. The dataset covers the years 2000 to 2004. This dataset complements Fogg et al. (2022)

A new version of this dataset is available at: https://doi.org/10.25935/AYZP-1833

Link to data repository


Utilising the preprocessed AKR selected Wind/WAVES data published by Waters et al (2021a,b), an automated detection algorithm has been created to identify distinct clusters of AKR emission. The steps within this automated algorithm are summarised here:

  1. The Waters et al (2021a) technique is applied to Wind/WAVES data.
  2. Burst start and end times are detected based on the number of frequency channels containing an intensity measurement passing a threshold for a minimum time window.
  3. Upper and lower frequency bounds are detected based on the density of intensity measurements in frequency space, for each observing interval in the detected burst window.
  4. A secondary search for shorter burst events associated with a larger ‘parent’ event is conducted, and the smaller events are combined with the parent events.
  5. Any events with zero power between 100-400 kHz is removed.

Full details can be found in Fogg et al. (2022)

Data Format

Two data formats are available (CSV and TFCat).

CSV data

Comma separated format (CSV) columns:

  • STIME : burst start in universal time (YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS.SSSSSSSSS)
  • ETIME : burst end in universal time (DD/MM/YYYY HH:MM:SS.SSSSSSSSS)
    BURST_TIMESTAMP: comma separated string list of universal times defining burst window, format YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS.SSSSSSSSS, empty values are represented as “NaT”
  • MIN_F_BOUND: comma separated string list of the lower frequency bound as a function of BURST_TIMESTAMP, empty values are represented as “nan”
  • MAX_F_BOUND: comma separated string list of the upper frequency bound as a function of BURST_TIMESTAMP, empty values are represented as “nan”

The CSV file contains the whole catalogue:

TFCat data
The dataset follows the Cecconi et al. (2021) TFCat specification. The data is provided in yearly files:

Coverage and sampling

  • Target: Earth
  • Time range: 2000-01-01 to 2004-12-08
  • Spectral range: 20 kHz to 1040 kHz


A.R.F., C.M.J. and C.K.L.’s work is supported by the Science Foundation Ireland Grant 18/FRL/6199. J.E.W.’s work was supported by the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Next Generation Computational Modelling Grant No. EP/L015382/1. The authors acknowledge CNES (Centre National d-Etudes Spatiales), CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientique) / INSU (Institut national des sciences de l’Univers) programs of planetology and heliophysics, and Observatoire de Paris for support to the Wind/WAVES team and the CDPP (Centre de Donn\’ees de la Physique des Plasmas) for the provision of the Wind/WAVES RAD1 L2 data.

BC was also supported by PADC and EPN2024-RI. The Europlanet 2024 Research Infrastructure (EPN2024-RI) project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 871149.


Any question or request should be addressed to contact.maser@obspm.fr


  • Cecconi, B., Bonnin, X., & Loh, A. (2021). JSON Implementation of Time-Frequency Radio Catalogues: TFCat. PADC/MASER. doi:10.25935/6068-8528
  • Fogg, A. R., Jackman, C. M., Waters, J. E., Bonnin, X., Lamy, L., Cecconi, B., et al. (2022). Wind/WAVES Observations of Auroral Kilometric Radiation: Automated Burst Detection and Terrestrial Solar Wind - Magnetosphere Coupling Effects. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 127(5), e2021JA030209. doi:10.1029/2021ja030209
  • Waters, J. E., Jackman, C. M., Lamy, L., Cecconi, B., Whiter, D. K., Bonnin, X., Issautier, K., Fogg, A. R. (2021a). Empirical selection of Auroral Kilometric Radiation during a multipoint remote observation with wind and Cassini. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 126, e2021JA029425. doi:10.1029/2021JA029425
  • Waters, J.E., B. Cecconi, C. M. Jackman, D. K. Whiter, X. Bonnin, L. Lamy & K. Issautier (2021b). Wind/Waves flux density collection calibrated for Auroral Kilometric Radiation (Version 1.0) [Data set]. PADC. doi:10.25935/wxv0-vr90

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